Conventions and processes, websites
Danish Institute for Human Rights: The Human Rights Guide to the Sustainable Development Goals: Linking human rights with all Sustainable Development Goals and targets.
Gender, Business & Human Rights: Research and Analysis I Business & Human Rights Resource Center.
IOMC: ICMS Toolbox for Decision Making in Chemicals Management.
SAICM Secretariat: SAICM Knowledge Platform.
SAICM Secretariat: Strategic Approach to International Chemicals management (SAICM).
Secretariat of the Basel, Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions (2021): Gender. Overview.
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2021): Gender and Biodiversity.
UCLA Center for the Study of Women: Chemicals Entanglements Blog.
UN Women training center: Gender Equality Glossary.
UNEP 2019: Resolution 4/17 on promoting gender equality and the human rights and empowerment of women and girls in environmental governance.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (2021): Introduction to Gender and Climate Change.
United Nations Statistics Division: UN Stats Open SDG Data Hub.
UN CC: e-learn: Open Online Course on Gender and Environment. Module 6. Gender, Chemicals and Waste.
Women2030, Gender and Water Alliance 2018: #Women2030 Master Manual for Training of Trainers: Building knowledge, skills, and capacity to implement gender- responsible SDGs.
Asveld, Lotte 2019: Towards including social sustainability in green and sustainable chemistry, in: Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Volume 19, October 2019, p.61-65.[Research Article, PDF]
“Green and sustainable chemistry holds the promise of realising a sustainable society by providing environmentally friendly production processes. However until now the focus has been very much on reducing waste and hazards, while there is also a need to consider the broader societal impact of chemical innovations. This article presents three additional principles to guide those in green chemistry towards including social sustainability in innovation trajectories.”
Breyma, Steve 2005: Green Chemistry as Social Movement, in: Science, Technology, & Human Values, 01.04.2005, Pages 199-222. [Research Article]
Broeckhoven, Nicky 2017: Integrating Gender into RIO Conventions. An international legal perspective. [PhD Thesis]
“Gender inequality and environmental degradation are closely intertwined. As they share common roots and are both symptoms of deeper systemic problems, these injustices need to be tackled simultaneously. This doctoral thesis examines the role that international law and policy plays or could play in terms of linking these injustices. It analyses specifically whether, to what extent, and how the three Rio Conventions on Climate Change, Biodiversity and Desertification have contributed to this process. First, a concise overview of the main interconnections between gender, environment and development based on various approaches is provided. The legal and policy journey towards linking gender and the environment at the international level is then set out, including an historical overview and a comprehensive analysis of the relevant sources of international law. Next, a detailed and analytical assessment of the three Rio Conventions, which encompasses the bulk of this thesis, is undertaken. It is clearly shown here that, while gender issues have been considered within the framework of each of the Rio Conventions over the years, the degree to which they have been considered varies significantly. Consequently, the main differences in terms of approaching gender are highlighted and the harmonization of a gender-sensitive approach in the Rio Conventions is discussed. Furthermore, this thesis briefly discusses whether a gender-responsive human rights based approach to climate change could complement existing efforts linking gender equality, women’s rights and the environment. Lastly, key legal, policy and advocacy recommendations are discussed, which could further facilitate a successful integration of gender considerations in the framework of the Rio Conventions”
Caterbow, Alexandra 2017: UNDP Guidance Document: Gender and Chemicals. [Publication, PDF]
CBD, UN Women (2019): Report of the Expert Workshop to Develop Recommendations for Possible Gender Elements in the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework. [Concept Note, PDF]
ChemSec International Chemical Secretariat 2015. The 32 to leave behind: The most well-founded list of EDCs relevant for REACH. [Article]
ChemSec, International Chemical Secreteriat 2018: The Precautionary Principle: A common sense way to protect our health and Booklet#1. [Publication, PDF]
Die Bundesregierung 2016: Deutsche Nachhaltigkeitsstrategie Neuauflage 2016. [Publication, PDF]
Dugaroa, Esua 2018: Gender Equality as an Accelerator for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. [Publication, PDF]
European Commission 2020: Communication from the commission to the European Parliament, the council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the regions – Chemicals Strategy for Sustainability Towards a Toxic-Free Environment. [Publication]
Falcone, Pasquale Marcello; Hiete, Michael 2019: Exploring green and sustainable chemistry in the context of sustainability transition: The role of visions and policy. Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, p. 66-75. [Research Article]
FAO – United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization & UNEP BRS Conventions 2015: Gender Heroes: from grassroots to global action. A collection of stories featuring gender perspectives on the management of hazardous chemicals and waste. [Publication, PDF]
FAO – United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization 2011: Women in Agriculture: Closing the Gender Gap for Development. [Publication, PDF]
FoE – Friends of the Earth- Australia; HCWH – Health Care Without Harm 2009. Nano and biocidal silver: Extreme germ killers present a growing threat to public health. [Report, PDF]
GEF – The Global Environment Facility 2009. Cleaning up: Ridding the world of dangerous chemicals. [Publication, PDF]
Focussing on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), the document focusses on national “clean up” projects under the impact of the Stockholm convention. It also adresses gender related human health aspects of exposure to POPs.
GEF – The Global Environment Facility, World Bank Group 2015: Mainstreaming Gender at the GEF. [Publication, PDF]
German Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth (BMFSFJ) 2019: Beijing+25. Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action. [Publication, PDF]
Gilligan, Molly; Sabater, Laura 2017: Women’s participation and gender considerations in country representation, planning and reporting to the BRS Conventions. [Publication, PDF]
Giz- Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (2019): Gender in Multi-Stakeholder Partnerships. [Publication, PDF]
Global Survey on Sustainability and the SDGs 2020: Report of Results Global Survey on Sustainability and the SDGs – Awareness, Priorities, Need for Action.[Report, PDF]
Gupta, Chetna D.; Gubta, Veibhaf K.; Nema, Pallavi; Patel; Jltndra R. 2012: Gender Differences in Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding the Pesticide Use Among Farm Workers: A Questionnaire Based Study, Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 2012, p. 632-639. [Research Article, PDF]
Due to societal changes, women in India are increasingly using and therefore exposed to pesticides in agriculture. As women also experience specific risks from the exposure to chemicals, the study examines differences in knowledge about and use of pesticides as well as negative externalities to develop and implement awareness and training programs.
Health and the Environment Alliance 2020: How endocrine disrupting chemicals affect women’s reproductive health: new factsheet and infographic by the FREIA project, Health and Environment Alliance. [Factsheet]
It is beyond a doubt that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) impact the health of humans and the environment globally. Surprisingly, we still don’t know exactly how EDCs can harm female reproductive health. The Health and Environment Alliance (HEAL) has teamed up with the FREIA project to launch a factsheet and infographic – available in English, Dutch and French – to introduce this research project and to illustrate how EDCs affect women’s health.
ILO 2021: Exposure to hazardous chemicals at work and resulting health impacts: A global review. [Report]
“This report provides the most recent evidence base for chemical exposures and resulting health impacts in the world of work, as well as insights into regional trends, gender considerations and priority action areas.”
IPEN 2018: Citizens’ Report Implementation on the strategic approach to international chemicals management (SAICM). [Report]
IUCN, UNEP and WEDO 2007: Gender Plan of Action. A guide based on the UNEP Gender Plan of Action. [Plan of Action, PDF]
Lee, Heisook; Pollitzer, Elisabeth (2020): Applying gender lenses to the interlinkages and synergies between SDGs Making sure that Agenda 2030 will not leave women behind. [Report, PDF]
This report was inspired by the scientific evidence examined during the 6th Gender Summit Asia-Pacific held in Seoul on 26-28 August 2015, showing how research and innovation outcomes are influenced by biological and social differences between females and males, and by the growing scientific consensus to integrate gender as a dimension of quality and impact in research. Aims to help improve efficacy of the measures used to implement the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s), including their cross-cutting impacts, by identifying that all sources and conditions of inequality in the lives of girls, boys, women, and men. It cites substantial research evidence, with 170 examples, to show that -gender considerations must be more deeply and broadly integrated into science knowledge and technologies supporting measures to achieve the SDG. It also lists over 150 examples of research topics recommended by experts as in of further investigation.
Levine, Hagai; Jørgensen, Nils; Martino-Andrade, Anderson 2017: Temporal trends in sperm count: a systematic review and meta-regression, Human Reproduction Update, 2017, p. 646-659. [Report]
Ontario Women’s Directorate and Industrial Accident Prevention Association 2006: Personal Protective Equipment for Women. Addressing the Need.[Report, PDF]
Pascher-Kirsch, Ute; Jansen, Katrin 2014: Chemiker machen Karriere und die Chemikerinnen? Eine Annäherung an die Karrierebilder im Fachdiskurs der Chemie, GENDER, 03.2014, p.61-77. [Research Article, PDF]
Prüss-Üstün, Annette; Wolf, J.; Bos, Robert; Neira, M. 2016: Preventing disease through healthy environments [Publication, PDF]
Reed, Deborah B.; Browning, Steven R.; Westneat, Susan C.; Kidd, Pamela S. 2006: Personal Protective Equipment Use and Safety Behaviors Among Farm Adolescents: Gender Differences and Predictors of Work Practices., The Journal of Rural Health, Fall 2006, p.314-320. [Research Article]
Royal Society of Chemicals 2018: Breaking the Barriers. Women’s retention and progression in the chemical sciences. [Report, PDF]
Seager, Joni 2019. Gender Equality and Environmental and Sustainability in the Age of a Crisis. [Article, PDF]
Gender and environment are mutually constitutive. In the last 25+ years, activists and scholars have identified, revealed, puzzled over and analyzed the multiple dimensions of these relationships. But the uptake of gender-environment knowledge into official analytical and policy frameworks — including, notably, the SDGs — has been tentative, light, and often resisted.
STAP – The Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel of the Global Environment Facility 2012. GEF Guidance on Emerging Chemicals Management Issues in Developing Countries and Countries with Economies in Transition. A STAP Advisory Document. Global Environment Facility, Washington DC. [Publication, PDF]
Focussing on Emerging Chemical Management Issues (ECMIs), the report also analyses gender specific effects of exposure and impacts for different chemicals. It continues to assess possible trans-boundary issues as well as priorities for intervention.
Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Mansfield, Elizabeth; Bezo, Randy 2015: Danger zone: Men, masculinity and occupational health and safety in high risk occupations. [Research Article]
Sutton, Patrice M.; Giudice Linda C. Woodruff, Tracey J.: American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology: Moving from awareness to action on preventing patient exposures to toxic environmental chemicals, AJOG, 01.05.2016, p.555-558. [Research Article]
The article develops recommendations for reproductive health professionals to increase the public awareness and political recognition for issues of widespread exposure to toxic chemicals. The prevention of exposure, food exposure as well as the general consideration of environmental health and environmental justice are discussed.
Swan, Shanna 2016: Count Down How Our Modern World Is Threatening Sperm Counts, Altering Male and Female Reproductive Development, and Imperiling the Future of the Human Race. [Book]
Tuncak, Baskut 2016. Impact of Toxics and Pollution on Children’s Rights. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the implications for human rights of the environmentally sound management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes. Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights OHCHR. [Publication]
Tuncak, Baskut 2017. Guidelines for good practices in relation to the human rights obligations related to the environmentally sound management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the implications for human rights of the environmentally sound management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes. Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights OHCHR [Publication, PDF]
Tuncak, Baskut 2019: How Toxic Substances Poison Worker’s Rights.[Report, PDF]
UN 1995: Beijing Declaration and Platform of Action, adopted at the Fourth World Conference on Women. [Report, PDF]
UN Women 2019: A tale of multiple disconnections. Why the 2030 agenda does not (yet?) contribute to moving German gender equality struggles forward. [Report, PDF]
UNDP – Environment and Energy Group 2018: The why and how of mainstreaming gender in chemicals management. [Publication, PDF]
After discussing the importance of sound chemicals management for sustainable development and the relevance of specifically including gender aspects in policy making and programming for sound chemicals management, the document lays out the most important factors for gender specific differences in health effects and exposure. Brief explanatory boxes and scenarios provide information and insight into possible interlinkages and socio-economic side effects as a result of chemical exposure.
UNDP – United Nations Development Programme 2007: Chemicals Management: The why and how of mainstreaming gender. [Report, PDF]
The report discusses the importance of chemicals management for sustainable development, the gender-related differences in exposure and related health-effects, and defines strategies/processes for UNDP as well as policy-makers on how to integrate gender aspects into sound chemicals management. A Multi-stakeholder approach is explicitly encouraged.
UNDP – United Nations Development Programme 2012: UNDP Guide for Integrating the Sound Management of Chemicals into Development Planning. [Publication, PDF]
Gender Mainstreaming is considered an integral part of mainstreaming sound chemicals management – as early as during the project mobilization phase. The guide refers to SAICM as the “the global strategy and policy that has been adopted by governments and stakeholders to promote the safe management of chemicals” (8). Because of its publication date, the report links SCM to the MDGs, which nevertheless provides insight into how gender related aspects of chemicals management can be identified within broader goals and targets.
UNEP – United Nations Environment Programme 2013: Global Chemicals Outlook – Towards Sound Management of Chemicals. [Report, PDF]
This report gives a comprehensive overview of trends and indicators of the chemical industry as well as an analysis of the respective economic implications and a discussion of instruments and approaches to achieve a sound management of chemicals. By including production and consumption data, discussing aspects of environmental releases and issues of recycling as well as human health effects and chemicals in consumer products it covers a wide range of issues. Specific aspects of women’s exposure to chemicals are mentioned throughout the report with a special emphasis on case studies in different developing countries and countries in transition.
UNEP – United Nations Environment Programme 2016: Global Gender and Environment Outlook. The Critical Issues. [Report, PDF]
The Global Gender and Environment Outlook (GGEO) combines gender-based assessment frameworks with the traditional environmental assessment approach of the Drivers-Pressures-State-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) methodology. With regard to chemicals it specifically addresses issues of sustainable consumption and production, linking the exposure to chemicals to higher levels of prevalence of breast cancer for women and subfertility and testicular cancer for men. Furthermore, by linking norms of femininity and masculinity to consumption patterns the document points to the important issue of “gendered environmental problems” and opportunities to combine approaches that foster environmental sustainability as well as gender equality.
UNEP – United Nations Environment Programme 2019: Pocket Guide to the BRS Gender Action Plan. [Publication, PDF]
UNEP- United Nations Environment Programme 2016: Gender Action Plan of the Secretariat of the Basel, Rotterdam and Stockholm conventions (BRS-GAP) for 2016-2017 Updated version. [Document, PDF]
UNEP- United Nations Environment Programme 2019: Global Chemicals Outlook II: From Legacies to Innovative Solutions. [Report]
Urbina-Blanco et. Al. 2020: A diverse view of science to catalyse change. In: Nature Chemistry, 09.2020, p. 773-776 [Research Article]
“Valuing diversity leads to scientific excellence, the progress of science and, most importantly, it is simply the right thing to do. We must value diversity not only in words, but also in actions.”
SAICM / IPEN (2022): Women Leaders: Adressing Chemicals and Waste issues.
The IPEN report “Women Leaders: Addressing Chemicals and Waste Issues” highlights women’s leadership through ten organizations from around the world working to address chemical health threats. The report was developed within the framework of the United Nations Environment Program and its Global Environment Facility (GEF), under the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM), executed by the SAICM Secretariat. It was produced with support from the Swedish Government.
SAICM / IPEN (2020): Women, Chemicals and the SDGs.
This report analyses the issues of gender and chemicals and relates them to the SAICM Emerging Policy Issues and Issues of Concern, identifying a range of inequalities, noting gaps that exist in what we know, differential effects within groups, and recommendations for moving forward.
Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Teixeira, Sandra; Castelhano, Joana; Lacomblez, Marianne 2012: When gender bumps into health and safety training: working conditions, readings and challenges drawn from a case study in an industrial chemicals. [Research Article]
WECF – Women Engage for a Common Future 2016: Women and Chemicals The impact of hazardous chemicals on women A thought starter based on an experts‘ workshop. [Publication, PDF]
WECF – Women Engage for a Common Future 2017. Plastics, Gender and the Environment. Findings of a literature study on the lifecycle of plastics and its impacts on women and men from production to litter. [Publication, PDF]
WECF, women2030 2018: The Gender Impact Assessment and Monitoring Tool. [Publication, PDF]
WHO – World Health Organization 1999: Women and Occupational Health: issues and policy paper for the Global Commission on Women’s Health. [Publication, PDF]
WHO – World Health Organization 2015: Roadmap for Action 2014-2019. [Publication]
“This document presents a Roadmap for Action, i.e., corporate integration of equity, human rights, gender and social determinants across the World Health Organization (WHO): all programmes, offices and key management processes.”
WHO – World Health Organization 2016: The Public Health Impact on Chemicals: Knowns and Unknowns. [Publication]
“The 2018 data addendum estimates that 1.6 million lives and 45 million disability-adjusted life-years were lost in 2016 due to exposures to selected chemicals. This is higher than the 2016 report estimate of 1.3 million lives and 43 million disability-adjusted life-years lost in 2012. Data are however only available for a small number of chemical exposures and people are exposed to many more chemicals every day.”
WHO – World Health Organization 2017: Chemicals Road Map. [Publication, PDF]
Wiset/Portia 2016: The role of gender-based innovations for UN sustainable development goals: Towards 2030, Seoul. [Report, PDF]
This report was inspired by the scientific evidence examined during the 6th Gender Summit Asia-Pacific held in Seoul on 26-28 August 2015, showing how research and innovation outcomes are influenced by biological and social differences between females and males, and by the growing scientific consensus to integrate gender as a dimension of quality and impact in research. Aims to help improve efficacy of the measures used to implement the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s), including their cross cutting impacts, by identifying that all sources and conditions of inequality in the lives of girls, boys, women, and men. It cites substantial research evidence, with 170 examples, to show that -gender considerations must be more deeply and broadly integrated into science knowledge and technologies supporting measures to achieve the SDG. It also lists over 150 examples of research topics recommended by experts as in of further investigation.